What You Need to Know About Tocotrienols

Tocotrienols are a group of chemicals that are part of the vitamin E family. So far, research has uncovered numerous benefits associated with tocotrienols.

Tocopherols are another group of chemicals that make up the vitamin E family. Both tocotrienols and tocopherols come in four forms: alpha, beta, delta, and gamma.

The average American diet contains more tocopherols than tocotrienols, so researchers are increasingly interested in how supplementing with tocotrienols might improve health.

Fast facts on tocotrienols:

  • Tocotrienols are a group of chemicals that are part of the vitamin E family.
  • Most vitamin E supplements are higher in tocopherols than tocotrienols.
  • Tocotrienols may help fight free radical damage to the gastrointestinal system.

What are tocotrienols?

Foods containing vitamin E
Tocotrienols and tocopherols are part of the Vitamin E family.

Both tocotrienols and tocopherols may be referred to as vitamin E. Vitamin E is an antioxidant, which means that it helps to neutralize free radicals.

Free radicals are chemicals linked to a host of health issues, including skin ageing, cancer, and numerous diseases. Free radicals can also cause chronic inflammation.

The primary reason tocotrienols may be beneficial is because of their antioxidant properties. Cereal grains tend to be rich in tocotrienols.

Good sources include:

  • rice bran
  • oats
  • barley
  • rye
  • crude palm oil

The four forms of tocotrienol are alpha, beta, gamma, and delta tocotrienol. Each type behaves differently, offering a range of health benefits.

How are they different from vitamin E?

Tocotrienols are a less common form of vitamin E than tocopherols. This is because there are more tocopherols in people’s diets and some vitamin E supplements consist exclusively of tocopherols.

The chemistry of vitamin E

The distinction between tocotrienols and tocopherols is chemical.

Research has found that only tocopherol can correct vitamin E deficiency, which suggests that tocopherol is the form of vitamin E that the body needs to function efficiently. However, scientists suggest that people interested in getting the most benefits from their vitamin E supplement should choose a supplement containing both tocopherols and tocotrienols.

The benefits of vitamin E

Both traditional vitamin E in the form of tocopherol and the tocotrienol form of vitamin E offer similar benefits. They’re both antioxidants with the power to reduce inflammation, potentially promoting anti-cancer, anti-ageing, and other benefits.

Benefits of tocotrienols

Tocotrienols target specific free radicals and sources of inflammation, however. Research has found that attacking these targets could offer the following health benefits:

Protecting the brain

n illustration of the human brain
Tocotrienol and tocopherol may protect brain cells from free radicals.

Some brain health conditions, including dementia, Alzheimer’s, and other forms of brain decline, are linked to free radical damage.

Tocotrienols may be able to fight a specific inflammatory factor that is related to brain health problems.

2014 study reconfirmed that the antioxidant activity of tocotrienol and tocopherol provide protection from free radical injury to brain cells.

Some research also suggests that tocotrienols may help fight Parkinson’s disease or slow the course of the disease.

Improved heart health

Tocotrienols can reduce or reverse inflammation and free radical damage that undermines heart health. Tocotrienols can also reduce the power of other cardiovascular health risk factors, including the impact of high cholesterol on heart health.

Reduced risk of cancer

Tocotrienols may reduce the risk of cancer by fighting free radical damage. Some studies also suggest that this form of vitamin E can slow the growth of cancer cells. A 2013 study found that tocotrienols could promote the death of breast cancer cells in the lab.

Research has also found that tocotrienols play a role in fighting liver, colon, prostate, lung, stomach, skin, and pancreatic cancers. Some studies suggest that gamma and delta tocotrienols may be more effective at fighting cancer than alpha and beta tocotrienols.

Preventing osteoporosis

Tocotrienols can help prevent and reduce osteoporosis-related bone loss in several ways. Nicotine use can cause osteoporosis, but research has found that tocotrienol lowers the risk. Studies of rats have found that tocotrienol may slow the course of free radical-related bone loss.

People who already have osteoporosis can also benefit from tocotrienol. Tocotrienol may support bone growth, helping the body replace bone that has been lost to osteoporosis.

Improved gastrointestinal health

This can reduce acidity and prevent the development of painful lesions. Tocotrienol was especially effective at fighting the effects of stress on the gastrointestinal system. In a study of rats that compared tocotrienol to tocopherol, tocotrienol alone stopped hormonal and acidity changes related to stress.

Hair and skin health

Some cosmetic and skin care product manufacturers include both tocopherol and tocotrienol in their vitamin E products. Because tocotrienol is an antioxidant, it may help reverse or slow skin damage due to free radicals.

This, in theory, could prevent wrinkles and help the skin look appear youthful. Some studies suggest that applying tocotrienol to the skin may help, but the improvements are modest and more research is needed.

Side effects of tocotrienols

It is recommended to speak with a healthcare professional before using tocotrienol supplements.

Studies have not uncovered any consistent, serious side effects associated with the use of tocotrienols. As with many other supplements, the primary risk is getting too much. People should talk to a doctor about the right dosing of tocotrienols, and do not exceed the recommended daily intake listed on the supplement package.

People with a history of allergies, particularly food allergies, may want to start with a low-dose supplement and can increase the dose slowly if they do not experience any side effects.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not monitor supplements, so it is important to choose brands that are trustworthy for purity and quality.

Tocotrienol shows great promise for improving health. Because it causes few or no side effects, it is safe for most people to try. It is not, however, a substitute for standard medical care. People interested in using tocotrienol should use it alongside traditional medicine to get the greatest benefits.


About Malanga

People in many parts of the world may not be familiar with malanga. However, this root vegetable has been farmed longer than many other plants.

According to the University of Florida’s Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, malanga goes by many other names, including “…yautia, cocoyam, eddo, coco, tannia, sato-imo, and Japanese potatoes.” The scientific name for malanga is Xantyosoma sagittifolium, but it is more commonly known as the elephant ear plant.

In this article, we take a look at malanga, examining its nutritional content, possible health benefits, and how to include this root vegetable in a diet.

What is malanga?

Malanga root vegetable chopped up on wooden background.
Malanga is a type of root vegetable grown in the Caribbean. The part of the plant that is eaten is the tuber, similar to a potato.

Malanga originated in South America, but it is now grown in the Caribbean, Central America, and certain parts of Africa and Asia.

It is sometimes confused with other tropical root vegetables, such as taro. The two plants have subtle differences in their structures. The malanga plant has sizeable leaves and may grow to be more than 5 feet tall.

The part of the malanga plant that is eaten is known as a tuber. The tubers grow underground and are similar in size to a potato. People should remove the brown, hairy skin of the tubers before eating them.

The flesh of the malanga root is light-colored and can be prepared using a variety of cooking methods, such as baking, frying, and stewing. Malanga can also be ground to make flour for baking.

Nutritional information

According to the American Diabetes Association, 1/3 cup cooked malanga provides the following:

  • 70 kilocalories
  • 0.1 g of fat
  • 16 g of carbohydrate
  • 1 g of protein

The same amount provides 3 g of fiber, which is 10 percent of the daily recommended amount of fiber for adults.

Regarding vitamins and minerals, 1/3 cup cooked malanga provides the following proportions of daily recommended amounts:

  • potassium: 9 percent
  • phosphorus: 5 percent
  • magnesium: 5 percent

It also contains smaller amounts of vitamin C, calcium, iron, and folate.

Possible health benefits

There have not been many studies specifically looking at the health benefits of malanga. One study in rats did report that malanga may be a source of antioxidants.

However, malanga contains many components that have been associated with health benefits.


Malanga contains insoluble fibre, which may help to manage and reduce blood pressure and cholesterol levels.

While it is usually the root of the malanga plant that is eaten, one study looked at the benefits of consuming fiber from malanga leaves.

The leaves contain a type of fiber called insoluble fiber. This type of fiber has been associated with an improved digestive function, lower risk of colon cancer, and healthier weight.

In contrast, soluble fiber is mainly associated with blood pressure and cholesterol improvements.

All of the rats in the study were fed a high-fat diet, but some of the rats also received varying types of dietary fiber. At the end of the study, the rats that ate the malanga leaf had significantly lower total cholesterol levels than the other rats, despite the malanga containing mainly insoluble fiber.

The malanga root itself is also a good source of fiber. As mentioned above, 1/3 cup of cooked malanga contains 10 percent of an adult’s daily recommended amount of fiber.

review of studies found that eating more fiber is associated with significantly lower total and LDL (or “bad”) cholesterol levels. Since high cholesterol is a risk factor for heart disease, eating more fiber may help protect against heart disease.


Besides its effects on blood cholesterol levels, dietary fiber may also play a role in weight management. This is important because obesity is a risk factor for many chronic diseases.

In the same study mentioned above, rats in the malanga leaf group gained less weight than the other groups.

review of studies found that a diet higher in fiber may help prevent weight gain. Adding malanga to a diet is one way to increase fiber intake.

Blood pressure

A 1/3 cup serving of cooked malanga provides 320 milligrams (mg) of potassium. Some studies have reported that there is an association between dietary potassium intake and blood pressure.

In one study, higher potassium intake was associated with a significantly lower risk of high blood pressure. This is important because high blood pressure increases the risk of heart disease and stroke. Potassium relaxes blood vessels, which lessens the work required by the heart to pump blood through the body.

How to incorporate malanga into a diet

Stew with meat and root vegetables.
Malanga can be used to replace potato and may be included in a variety of dishes, including stews.

There are many ways to include malanga into a diet. Malanga is available in many Latin American grocery stores, as well as some supermarket chains.

The vegetable needs to be washed, peeled and cooked before being eaten. People should not eat malanga raw.

Malanga has a similar texture as potatoes and can replace potatoes in many recipes. Malanga flour can also be used to replace wheat flour in baked goods.

Malanga is described as having a woody or earthy taste with a hint of nuts.

Boiled malanga can be mashed with milk and olive oil to make a tasty side dish. It is a natural thickener and can be added to soups and stews.

Recipe ideas

See below for recipes that use malanga:

Possible risks

Malanga is likely safe for most people, except for those who are allergic to it or have certain medical conditions.

In general, malanga is considered a well-tolerated food that is unlikely to cause an allergic reaction.

A 1/3 cup serving of cooked malanga has 320 mg of potassium. According to the National Kidney Foundation, foods that contain more than 200 mg of potassium per serving are considered high potassium.

Some people with kidney disease or those who take certain medications may need to limit high-potassium foods. Having too much potassium in the blood can cause dangerous side effects, such as abnormal heart rhythm and weakness.

Anyone who is concerned should check with their doctor to see if they need to limit potassium in their diet.

Overall, malanga provides many useful nutrients. Some of these nutrients may offer health benefits when included as part of a healthful diet.

Malanga is well-known in many parts of the world but not commonly eaten in others. As interest in regional cuisines grows, malanga may become even more widely available.

Although not a familiar taste for some, it is a versatile root vegetable that can be used in many recipes.

Every Man Over 30

The Prostate Problem

Like women, men too are exposed to the effects of chemical estrogens in their environment. In addition, as their testosterone levels drop with age, there is, in many cases, a concomitant rise in estradiol levels — the major reason that many older men develop breasts. Just as with women, estradiol stimulates cell growth in men too and is potentially cancerous.

Estradiol stimulates the BCL2 gene, which is the gene responsible for stopping cell death. What at first glance sounds like a positive, is, upon closer inspection, not. When cell death in prostate tissue, for example, is blocked, cell growth continues unabated — becoming a major contributing factor in the enlargement of the prostate and the development of prostate cancer. This is one of the main factors involved in the dramatically increased incidence of prostate cancer.

  • A new case of Prostate Cancer is diagnosed every 3 minutes in America and every 15 minutes a man dies from prostate cancer.
  • Prostate Cancer is the second leading type of cancer among men.
  • 11 million men have some form of Prostate Cancer in the United States.
  • African-American men have the highest rate of Prostate Cancer in the world.
  • Survival rates for men with prostate cancer in 1995 were no different than they were in 1965.
  • The age at which Prostate Cancer develops will drop ten years by the year 2000. By the year 2000, Prostate Cancer will increase by 90%.

The Prostate Solution

Regular use of a men’s progesterone creme makes a great deal of sense for any man over the age of 30. Look for a formula that contains saw palmetto oil (0.8%), pygeum bark extract, apricot oil, pumpkin seed oil, and natural progesterone USP (0.7%). Each ¼ teaspoon of creme should contain approximately 8.25 milligrams of progesterone — about half the dosage recommended for women.

Why a Men’s Creme?

  • The transdermal application of many supplements and drugs has been illustrated to be extremely effective as a delivery system.
  • Men with BPH (swelling of the prostate) and other male related problems will appreciate the speed of relief with this transdermal delivery.
  • A good men’s creme should be formulated with natural oils high in omega-3 and omega-6 fatty lipid acids. These oils, along with a liposome delivery system, facilitate the movement of the active ingredients through the epidermis into the fatty layers beneath the skin.

Natural Progesterone

Dr John R. Lee, MD. states that progesterone is vital to good health in men. It is the primary precursor of our adrenal hormones and testosterone. Males synthesize progesterone in amounts less than women do, but it is still vital.

Natural Progesterone is a proven libido and potency enhancer that can also boost fertility and protect men from cancer of the testicles and prostate. It stabilizes and normalizes hormone ratios without the dangerous side effects now associated with testosterone and DHEA replacement therapy.

  • Dr Lee recommends that men use 8 – 12 mg of progesterone daily.
  • Progesterone is a 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor — it helps prevent the conversion of testosterone into DHT, the “bad” testosterone.
  • Progesterone balances the estrogens that build in a man’s body.
  • And progesterone has no feminizing characteristics.

Other Key Herbal Ingredients For Men’s Health

A good men’s creme should also contain proven male supplements such as saw palmetto oil, pygeum bark extract, pumpkin seed oil, stinging nettle extract, and zinc along with natural progesterone in a premium, all-natural moisturizing creme.

Saw Palmetto

This herb is called the “plant catheter” due to its therapeutic effect on the neck of the bladder and the prostate in men. Saw Palmetto is widely used in Germany, Canada, the United Kingdom and now the US. for nutritionally benefiting the prostate and urinary tract. It has been marketed as an aphrodisiac for both men and women.

The active constituents are a volatile oil, steroidal saponin, tannins, and polysaccharides. Saw Palmetto is a tonic, and is one of the few herbal remedies that are considered to be anabolic – it strengthens and builds body tissues.

For men, it treats an enlarged and weakened prostate gland. It has shown significant activity in the treatment of conditions associated with benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). Saw palmetto extract works to prevent testosterone from converting into dihydrotestosterone, the hormone thought to cause prostrate cells to multiply, leading to an enlarged prostate. In addition, it works to tone the bladder, improve urinary flow, and relieve strain. Regular use of saw palmetto may decrease urinary frequency, especially during the night, by allowing complete bladder expulsion and by reducing inflammation of the bladder and enlarged prostate.


Pygeum Africanum has been used for years to prevent prostate atrophy and malfunction. It is known for its high content of a fatty acid, called beta-sitosterol. Beta-sitosterol has a high affinity for the prostate and may be particularly useful in maintaining normal lipid and fluid balance.

Double-blind clinical trials have shown efficacy for many parameters of prostatic hypertrophy, including failure to urinate, nocturnal urination, frequent urination, residual urine, abdominal heaviness, voiding volume, prostate volume and peak flow. Results included significant reduction of symptoms and prostate size and clearance of bladder neck urethra obstruction.

Stinging Nettles

Many scientists believe that one of the major culprits in the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the testosterone metabolite: dihydrotestosterone. This is supported by the fact that men deficient in dihydrotestosterone do not experience prostatic growth, and that treatment with prescription drugs which inhibit the production of dihydrotestosterone can decrease prostatic growth.

An increase in the ratio of estrogen to testosterone in elderly men indicates that estrogen may also be involved in the development of BPH.

Studies have proven that extracts of pygeum and nettle root can effectively block the action of two enzymes involved in the body’s production of dihydrotestosterone and estrogen. Laboratory studies have shown that both pygeum and nettle root extracts were effective in inhibiting these two enzymes (5alpha-reductase and aromatase) and that a combination of the two plant extracts was significantly more effective than either extract individually in blocking aromatase activity.

Apricot Seed Oil

Over 30 years ago, Amygdalin (Vitamin B-17), a relatively simple compound found abundantly in apricot seeds, was proclaimed as the cure for cancer. Amygdalin is composed of two molecules of glucose (a sugar), one molecule of benzaldehyde (an analgesic) and one molecule of hydrocyanic acid (an anti-neoplastic compound).

Pumpkin Seed Oil and Capric Triglycerides

The specific components of these fats are known to prevent bladder and prostate problems, even to shrink enlarged prostate glands in early stages. These oils provide essential fatty acids, linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic which also have demonstrated support of prostate health.

Men’s Health Recommendation

Any man over 30 years of age would be well advised to supplement on a daily basis with a good quality men’s progesterone creme.

Nettle For Men’s Health

Nettle herb, or Urtica dioica, is found in every single state in the US except Hawaii. While most consider it a pesky weed, herbalists understand its true value. The nettle herb is considered to be so powerful by some that legends say Jetsun Milarepa, one of Tibet’s most famous yogis and poets, lived on a diet of nothing but nettle tea for years, which, according to legend, caused his skin turn green. Even further back, reports have been found that ancient Egyptians used a nettle infusion for the relief of arthritis and lumbago pains. Even Hippocrates and his followers reported 61 different remedies using nettle.

Today, not much has changed. Naturopaths and herbalists still consider the nettle to be among the most valuable herbal remedies. It is probably best known for its use in overall prostate health. It has been used in Germany for more than a decade to address enlarged prostates, also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and has been shown to reduce symptoms by 86% after three months of use. Nettle does this by inhibiting the binding of a testosterone-related protein (SHBG) to receptor sites on prostate cell membranes. Nettle is particularly effective when used in combination with saw palmetto. Whereas saw palmetto protects against prostate enlargement caused by DHT, nettle root inhibits the proliferation of prostate cells in response to estrogen and SHBG.

Many scientists believe that one of the major culprits in the development of BPH is the testosterone metabolite dihydrotestosterone. This is supported by the fact that men deficient in dihydrotestosterone do not experience prostatic growth, and that treatment with prescription drugs which inhibit the production of dihydrotestosterone can decrease prostatic growth. An increase in the ratio of estrogen to testosterone in elderly men indicates that estrogen may also be involved in the development of BPH.

Studies have proven that extracts of both Pygeum (unfortunately, now listed as an endangered species) and nettle root (fortunately still available) can effectively block the action of two enzymes involved in the body’s production of dihydrotestosterone and estrogen. Laboratory studies have shown that both pygeum and nettle root extracts were effective in inhibiting these two enzymes (5-alpha-reductase and aromatase). Effectively, then, nettle inhibits the conversion of testosterone to DHT. This keeps free testosterone levels up, which is beneficial to both men and women while reducing prostate size, which is a bonus for men.

Nettle is also considered an extremely effective treatment for allergy symptoms, most notably hay fever since it contains biologically active compounds that reduce inflammation. Dr Andrew Weil, M.D., well-known naturopath and author of several natural health books, says he knows of nothing more effective than nettle for allergy relief. Positive evidence of freeze-dried nettle leaf in treatment for hay fever, asthma, seasonal allergies and hives was discovered in a study conducted by the National College of Naturopathic Medicine in Portland, Oregon. It’s interesting to note that Australians have been using nettle for years as a treatment for asthma, but Americans didn’t catch onto this until about 1990.

Most notable about using nettle for allergy treatment is that over-the-counter treatments only treat symptoms and have some negative side effects such as drowsiness, dry sinuses, insomnia and high blood pressure. Nettle has none of these side effects and offers many other health benefits besides being a remedy for allergy sufferers.

The benefits of this herb do not stop here either. It has been studied extensively worldwide for a variety of conditions. You will find that nettle has been used to treat all manner of issues including Alzheimer’s disease, arthritis, asthma, bladder infections, bronchitis, bursitis, childbirth, gingivitis, gout, hives, kidney stones, laryngitis, multiple sclerosis, PMS, pregnancy, sciatica, and tendinitis! It’s even been used externally to help with baldness, oily hair, and dandruff.

Nettle is used in many forms, including as teas, tinctures, fluid extracts, creams, and even a freeze-dried leaf capsule.

Natural Pomegranate Juice Demonstrates a Beneficial Effect on Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure and hs-CRP, while also Increasing Triglycerides and VLDL Cholesterol

Metabolic syndrome is the name for a group of risk factors (high blood pressure, increased blood levels of sugar and lipids, and excess body fat around the waist) that increase the development of cardiovascular disease. Foods high in polyphenols have high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Pomegranate (Punica granatum, Lythraceae) fruit juice may have cardiovascular benefits in relation to this issue. However, nutritionists are concerned with pomegranate’s simultaneous effect on the rise of glycemic factors and sugar-dependent lipids; namely, triglycerides and very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C). The purpose of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study was to evaluate the effect of pomegranate juice on cardiometabolic indices and glycemic indices in patients with metabolic syndrome.

Patients with metabolic syndrome (n = 32; aged 18-70 years) were recruited via advertisement in Shabestar, Iran. This study took place between December 2012 and January 2013. Included patients had ≥ 3 of 5 components of metabolic syndrome—namely, waist circumference > 88 cm for women and > 102 cm for men, serum triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol < 50 mg/dL for women and < 40 mg/dL for men, systolic blood pressure ≥ 135 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 85 mmHg, and fasting plasma glucose concentration > 110 mg/dL. Excluded patients included those who were pregnant or breastfeeding; consumed alcohol; had systemic, inflammatory, hepatic, or kidney diseases; and were allergic to pomegranate juice or the pomegranate placebo. Patients were withdrawn from the data analysis if during the study they had any change of diet, any disease development, or had an increase in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol where medications were needed. Patients were treated with either 500 mL pure pomegranate juice or placebo for 7 days, and, following a 7-day washout, they received the opposite treatment.

Pomegranate juice was prepared by hand by the researchers. The arils were removed from Shiraz pomegranates and were manually squeezed to yield juice; no additives were used. The juice included anthocyanins, 100.46 mg/L; total phenolics, 69 mg/L; total flavonoids, 283.02; and antioxidant capacity (DPPHsc [2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity]), 69%. Food engineers created a placebo formula to resemble the pomegranate juice taste and color. The similarity of the placebo and pomegranate juice was confirmed by 3 expert testers. The placebo was void of any polyphenols. The patients were asked not to change their lifestyle, diet, or physical activity during the study. Food intake and physical activities were recorded in a diary for 3 days to ensure no changes were made during the study. Blood was drawn at baseline and after 7 days of treatment to measure high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, blood insulin, triglycerides, HDL, LDL, and VLDL. Blood pressure also was measured.

Thirty patients were included in the final analysis; 1 patient was withdrawn due to development of the flu and taking antibiotics, and 1 patient had emotional and psychological problems. There was no change in intake of energy, carbohydrates, protein, or fat. Triglyceride levels and VLDL were significantly higher after pomegranate juice than after the placebo (P = 0.025 and P = 0.016, respectively). Blood hs‑CRP was significantly lower after pomegranate juice compared with baseline (P = 0.028) and placebo (P = 0.018). After pomegranate juice consumption, systolic and diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased compared to baseline and placebo (P < 0.001 for all). After placebo, systolic blood pressure significantly decreased compared to baseline (P = 0.007).

The authors conclude that 500 mL/day of natural pomegranate juice had a beneficial effect on systolic and diastolic blood pressure and hs-CRP, despite increasing triglyceride and VLDL levels. Other studies report no effect of pomegranate juice on hs-CRP, while one reported a beneficial effect in overweight and obese individuals. The authors hypothesize that the difference between their findings and other reports can be attributed to the high daily dose of pomegranate juice in this study and the variety (Shiraz) of pomegranate used. It is not surprising that the increase in triglycerides was accompanied by an increase in VLDL because VLDL transports triglycerides. A meta-analysis concluded that the significant increase of triglycerides could disappear with long-term use.1 The authors state that “This study showed that nutritionists, at least in the short-term, were right in being concerned because consuming pomegranate juice, in addition to having beneficial effects on blood pressure and inflammatory indices, has harmful effects on triglyceride and VLDL-C which is due to its high level of fructose.” Long-term studies in a larger population are needed to confirm these short-term results. The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests. The study was funded by Urmia University of Medical Sciences; Urmia, Iran.


1Sahebkar A, Simental-Mendía LE, Giorgini P, Ferri C, Grassi D. Lipid profile changes after pomegranate consumption: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Phytomedicine. 2016;23(11):1103-1112.

Moazzen H, Alizadeh M. Effects of pomegranate juice on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with metabolic syndrome: a double-blinded, randomized crossover controlled trial. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. June 2017;72(2):126-133.