Eight Potential Health Benefits of Kombucha

Kombucha is a sweet, fizzy drink made of yeast, sugar, and fermented tea. It has a number of potential health benefits, including gut health and liver function.

This article explores eight potential health benefits of kombucha and looks at the research that supports them.

What is kombucha?

A jar of raw kombucha fermented drink, on a wooden table with chopped up lemon and a stem of ginger.
Kombucha is a fermented drink that is popular for its purported health benefits.

To make kombucha, sweetened green or black tea is fermented with a symbiotic colony of bacteria and yeast, otherwise known as a SCOBY.

During the fermentation process, the yeast in the SCOBY breaks down the sugar in the tea and releases probiotic bacteria.

Kombucha becomes carbonated after fermentation, which is why the drink is fizzy.

Potential health benefits

There is a range of potential health benefits of kombucha, including:

1. Gut health

As this 2014 study confirms, the fermentation process of kombucha means that the drink is rich in probiotics. Probiotic bacteria are similar to healthful bacteria that are found in the gut.

Consuming probiotics may improve overall gut health. Probiotic bacteria have been found to help treat diarrhea, and some research suggests they may help ease irritable bowel syndrome(IBS).

More research is needed into how kombucha improves gut health, but the link between probiotics and gut health suggests it may support the digestive system.

The link between healthy bacteria in the digestive system and immune function is becoming clearer as more studies focus on gut health. If the probiotics in kombucha improve gut health, they may also strengthen the immune system.

2. Cancer risk

There is growing evidence to suggest drinking kombucha could help reduce the risk of cancer.

2008 study found that kombucha helped prevent the growth of cancer cells. Further research in 2013 found that kombucha decreased the survival of cancer cells. Both studies suggest kombucha could play a role in treating or preventing cancer.

It is important to note that these studies looked at the effects of kombucha on cancer cells in a test tube. More research is needed to see if people who drink kombucha have a reduced risk of developing cancer.

3. Infection risk

A type of acid called acetic acid, also found in vinegar, is produced when kombucha is fermented.

study carried out in 2000 found that kombucha was able to kill microbes and help fight a range of bacteria. This suggests that it may help prevent infections by killing the bacteria that cause them before they are absorbed by the body.

4. Mental health

Young smiling woman drinking fruit juice ice tea.
The probiotics in kombucha are thought to have the ability to treat depression.

There may be a link between probiotics and depression, suggesting that drinking probiotic-rich kombucha could help promote positive mental health.

There are strong links between depression and inflammation so the anti-inflammatory effect of kombucha may help alleviate some of the symptoms of depression.

2017 review looked at a number of existing studies and concluded that there is strong evidence that probiotics may help treat depression. However, further research is needed to prove how effective they are.

5. Heart disease

Levels of certain types of cholesterol increase the risk of heart disease. Studies in 2012 and 2015 found that kombucha helps to reduce levels of the cholesterol linked to heart disease. Cholesterol levels and heart disease are also influenced by diet, exercise, weight, lifestyle habits, and inflammation. However, the research cited here suggests drinking kombucha may help reduce the risk of heart disease.

At the same time, it is important to note that these studies were in rats. More research is needed to prove that kombucha reduces the risk of heart disease in humans.

6. Weight loss

When kombucha is made with green tea, it may aid weight loss. A 2008 study found that obese people who took green tea extract burned more calories and lost more weight than those who did not.

If kombucha is made with green tea, it follows that it could have a similarly positive effect on weight loss.

Again, researchers need to look at kombucha and weight loss specifically before this is certain.

7. Liver health

Kombucha contains antioxidants that help fight molecules in the body that can damage cells.

Some studies, the most recent being in 2011, have found that the antioxidant-rich kombucha reduces toxins in the liver. This suggests that kombucha may play an important role in promoting liver health and reducing liver inflammation.

However, studies to date have looked at rats and more research is needed to say with certainty how kombucha can support liver health in humans.

8. Type 2 diabetes management

Kombucha tea in iced bottles, with fruit segments fermenting.
Kombucha may help to stabilize blood sugar levels and aid in the management of diabetes.

Kombucha may also be helpful in managing type 2 diabetes.

2012 study found that kombucha helped to manage blood sugar levels in rats with diabetes. This finding suggests it may be helpful in type 2 diabetes management.

Again, more research is needed to say with certainty whether kombucha can have the same benefits in type 2 diabetes management for humans.

Are there any risks?

It is important to be careful when making kombucha at home, as it can ferment for too long. It is also possible for kombucha to become contaminated when not made in a sterile environment.

Over-fermentation or contamination may cause health problems so it may be safer to buy kombucha in a store than to make it at home.

Store-bought kombucha normally has a lower alcohol content than homemade versions, but it is important to check the sugar content.

There are many potential health benefits of kombucha. However, it is important to remember that research is ongoing and not all benefits have been proven in studies with human participants.

If made properly or bought in-store, kombucha is a probiotic-rich drink that is safe to enjoy as part of a healthful diet.

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Chewing Your Food Could Protect Against Infection

“Chew your food!” This is a phrase likely to have been heard by many of us during childhood. According to a new study, we would be wise to take that advice. Researchers have found that chewing food prompts the release of an immune cell that can protect against infection.
[A lady eating a salad]
Chew your food; it could help protect you from illness.

The study, recently published in the journal Immunity, found that chewing food – otherwise known as mastication – can stimulate the release of T helper 17 (Th17) cells in the mouth.

Th17 cells form a part of the adaptive immune system, which uses specific antigens to defend against potentially harmful pathogens while enduring “friendly” bacteria that can be beneficial to health.

According to the study team, led by Dr. Joanne Konkel of the University of Manchester in the United Kingdom, in the gut and the skin, Th17 cells are produced through the presence of friendly bacteria.

However, the researchers note that the mechanisms by which Th17 cells are produced in the mouth have been unclear.

Chewing ‘can induce a protective immune response in our gums’

Dr. Konkel and colleagues note that the mechanical force required by mastication leads to physiological abrasion and damage in the mouth.

With this in mind, the team set out to investigate whether such damage might play a role in oral Th17 cell production.

The researchers came to their findings by feeding weaning mice soft-textured foods, which required less chewing until they reached 24 weeks of age. At 24 weeks, the release of Th17 cells in the rodents’ mouths was measured.

A significant reduction in oral Th17 cell production was noted, which the team speculated was down to a reduction in mastication-induced physiological damage.

Confirming their theory, the researchers found that increasing the levels of physiological damage in the rodents’ mouths – by rubbing the oral cavity with a sterile cotton applicator – led to an increase in the production of Th17 cells.

Dr. Konkel and colleagues believe these findings indicate that chewing food may help to protect us from illness.

“The immune system performs a remarkable balancing act at barrier sites such as the skin, mouth and gut by fighting off harmful pathogens while tolerating the presence of normal friendly bacteria.

Our research shows that, unlike at other barriers, the mouth has a different way of stimulating Th17 cells: not by bacteria but by mastication. Therefore mastication can induce a protective immune response in our gums.”

Dr. Joanne Konkel

The downsides of excessive mastication

However, the researchers caution that increased oral Th17 cell production may not always be beneficial; too many of these cells can increase the risk of periodontitis, or gum disease, which has been associated with numerous other health conditions, including diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis.

In their study, the team also found that long-term exposure to physiological damage caused by mastication can exacerbate the effects of periodontitis.

They came to this finding by feeding weaning mice hardened food pellets up until 24 weeks of age.

Compared with mice fed soft food, the mice fed hard food showed more mastication-induced physiological damage in their mouths and increased periodontal bone loss.

Still, the researchers believe that their findings could lead to new strategies to combat an array of illnesses.

“Importantly, because inflammation in the mouth is linked to the development of diseases all around the body,” says Dr. Konkel, “understanding the tissue-specific factors that regulate immunity at the oral barrier could eventually lead to new ways to treat multiple inflammatory conditions.”